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Investment dictionary

We understand that not everyone who decided to cooperate with our company, have the knowledge in investing. In order for the process of interaction has become more comfortable and productive from the point of view of understanding, we offer You short investment Glossary of concepts used most frequently in the process of trading. We tried to take into account the specifics of the business and provided the most necessary concepts and definitions.

And
Arbitration – Opening and closing trading positions at the same time and one and the same currency pair on two different exchanges, the purpose of which - profit due to the cross-sectional divergence rates for these currencies.
Example: New-York currency exchange rate of the currency pair USD/JPY equal $12=¥1000 At the same time on the London stock exchange this year was $10=¥1000. Simultaneously performing a sequential exchange JPY on USD in London and USD on JPY in new-York you can earn 2$.
To b
Basis point - The step change in income for stock exchange assets 0,01%.
Example: At lower interest rates, for example, with 12,3% to 12%, there was a decrease equal to 30 basis points.

The base currency - Currency, the first specific currency pair for which the auction is conducted for the quote currency.
Example: The pair USD/JPY. In this currency pair is the base currency USD.

The base interest rate - Minimum interest rate for different types of credit, declared publicly by commercial banks.

Balance - The result of all completed transactions on a trading account, expressed in financial terms.

The Bretton woods agreement - The agreement in force until 1971 year and signed by the countries-members of the United Nations in 1944 that which was agreed constant exchange rates for major world currencies with the possibility of foreign exchange intervention by Central banks. This was installed the fixed price of gold, which was 35 USD.

The British pound sterling - The name of the exchange rate of the currency pair GBP/USD. The name of the course got from-for the priorities in the transmission of quotations of the Transatlantic cable bridge.

Broker - Sales representative in the form of legal or individuals who are professional participant of securities market having the right to carry out operations with securities services or any other mediation services from his name or in the name and on behalf of the client. The broker works for a Commission from of transactions.

Bull - Participant of the securities market and other stock sites which confident growth of quotations. In trading a bull always makes a bet and plays increase.
In
Gross domestic product (GDP) - The total value of all goods and services produced in the territory of the country of its citizens as well as nonresidents of the state for given reporting time period.

Gross national product (GNP) - The total value of all goods and services produced on the territory of the country of its citizens and abroad during a specific reporting period.

Currency quotes - Currency, coming second in a particular currency pair for which is underway auction for the base currency.
Example: The pair USD/JPY. In this currency pair the quote currency is the currency JPY.

Currency basket - The list of foreign currencies, which is landmark in the process of installation of the national currency against all other currencies state national regulator of the relevant country.

Currency pair - The object, which is the financial tool for making conversion to Forex and using the fluctuations of one currency from this currency pair against other.
Example: The pair: USD/JPY.

Volatility - The risk level of usage a financial instrument over a given period of time expressed in absolute or the relative value from the initial value of certain market indices.

World trade organization (WTO) - Mejdunarodnaya regulatory issues world trade. Formed during the reorganization of the General agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT).
G
Collateral (GUO) — the amount of money available in the reserve trader in the trading account for the purchase of one futures contract.

Global Depositary receipt (GDR) — Certificate issued by the Bank-by the Depositary, which certifies the right of the owner of the certificate for the use of certain benefits from placed in the Bank by the owner of the securities.

Blue chips – The totality of the most reliable and large companies of a particular country, having a reputation companies with high levels in business and who have an active rotation on available for trading market.

Government securities – Securities issued on behalf of a state.

State registration number – letter-digital code identifying a particular party the issue of securities that are subject to mandatory registration.
D
DAX - The main stock index of Germany. On the basis of the weighted average the stock first hundred the largest enterprises of Germany.

Devaluation - The decline in the purchasing power of every national currency. The main characteristics is the depreciation against the major foreign currencies, as well as to the cost gold.

The budget deficit - Excess of planned expenditure over revenues of the state.

Range - The difference resulting subtracting the minimum price from the maximum, taken in a certain period time.

Diversification - The purchase of securities in a wide range of reduce risk of loss of funds scheme, when the depreciation of some valuable securities covered by raising the rate of other securities.

Dealer - Legal or private person, engaged in operations with securities independently, without intermediaries and brokers, generating Autonomous trading activities on their own cash tools.

Long position - The purchase of securities or currencies with the aim spot sales, focused on growth in asset value over time. One of the most common and lucrative investment strategies.

Dollar - National currency of several countries. As a rule, to avoid confusion, when referring to this currency always add the country-the Issuer.
Example: US dollar, Australian dollar, Canadian dollar.
E
Euro - Currency that has an official obligatory circulation in all countries The European Union and in some other European countries.

European monetary system (EMU) - The system of measures designed to maintain monetary stability countries participating in the European monetary Union, and ensuring the promotion of Europe to economic integration and preventing disruption of trade from-for currency fluctuations. Stopped working in 1998 year.
And
Index NASDAQ - Reflects the current state of Affairs in the markets for high tech and the reaction of the business-community on political and economic developments in the country, which can to influence the volatility of the markets of high technologies. The index is calculated on the basis of value of listed companies.

The Dow-Jones - The sum of the prices of shares of the first 30 the largest conditional-industrial companies in the US divided by the indicator is measured every time these promotions are either split or consolidation.

The consumer price index - Reflects the dynamics of changes the cost of a basket purchased monthly average American.

The index of the Tokyo stock exchange - Index displaying the state of Affairs in the economy of Japan. Is the average of the value of the stock 225 the most major companies listed on the Tokyo stock exchange.

Tool - Shows the relative strengths of major currency pairs in comparison with each other.

Intervention (Currency) - Monetary Central Bank intervention of the state in operation on the national currency market in order the necessary changes of national currency rate by buying or selling foreign currency, in relation to which you want to change the national currency.
Example: Lower exchange rate of the national currency through buying foreign currency.
Th
Jena - The national currency of Japan. Is among the main currencies of the world as a reserve currency.
To
The Commission - Previously agreed with the client monetary compensation of the broker expressed as a percentage of the transaction amount or the expected profit.

Short position - Sale of securities or currencies which the seller at the time of sale not owns. Is characterized by the necessity to cover the transaction for subsequent decrease in quotations in this position.

Quoting - Public price offer between buyer and seller on the stock exchange with subsequent registration. Quoting prices necessary for the settlement of transactions, ensures transparency and maintaining competitive terms of trade.

Quote - The price of the offer, which committed the transaction of purchase or sale. Expressed as rates Ask or Bid.

Credit shoulder - The ratio between the amount of collateral and allocated under this Deposit money.
Example: There is 1000$. And leverage 1:1. In this case, this leverage will provide additionally 1000$ to the initial one thousand dollars. Leverage 1:10 provide 10000$.

Cross rate - Currency pairs obtained by calculating the rate of each of the currency pairs relatively to the rate third currency. For example, to calculate the currency pair EUR/JPY quotes are used EUR/USD and USD/JPY.

Course - The price of monetary unit of one country's currency expressed the price of monetary unit of another country's currency.
L
Locked positions - Transaction, the conduct of which is the opening another order with the same amount but in the opposite direction with respect to the already open an unprofitable order.

London interbank offered rate suggestions - the average interest rate on interbank credit, provided by the commercial banks that are participants in the London interbank market and offering such loans are available in a variety of currencies and provide for various terms lending. Mainly to 12 months.

Lot - Unit transactions at the stock exchange.
M
Margin - The difference between the sales price of the lot and the purchase price of the lot. This difference usually expressed as profit per lot or percentage of the purchase price (margins). The collateral used in the loan to a trader for holding a short position or margin trading.

Margin for locked positions - Weighted average the price of the open positions multiplied by the total volume for legirovaniem positions and multiplied by the funds required to open and maintain locked positions. Equals 50% from the standard Deposit for a trading symbol.

Margin trading - Conducting speculative trading of transactions using money or other exchange of assets, provide the seller a loan secured by a pre-defined amount of money, or margin. Trade with leverage that exceeds the actual amount collateral.

Bear - Participant of the securities market and other stock sites, which is sure to decline. In the auction bear always makes a bet and plays a demotion.

The international currency market (Forex) - Financial market which made trade operations with currency.

The minimum price - The minimum price for a certain financial instrument over a given period of time.
N
Necessary margin - A certain amount of guarantee cash collateral, requested the dealer to maintain open positions.

A non-resident - A legal or natural person conducting its activities in one state but having permanent registration and place of residence in the other. Also nonresidents may be organizations that are not legal persons, registered in accordance with the legislation of foreign States. In addition, nonresidents may be located in the country of foreign diplomatic and other having the status of an official, representative offices, international organizations and their branches.

Non-trading operation - The variation of the external economic operations which are not commodity-wealth, and certain types of services and activities.
Example: Depositing funds in a trading account, a loan, cash payments for services brokers.

NYSE -The largest and one of the oldest stock exchanges in the United States. This exchange provides the Dow-Jones and index NYSE Composite.
On
Overnight - The transition of open positions to the next trading day.

Order - The Directive initiated by the client to the broker on the trading transactions with certain volume of the instrument at a pre-specified rate.

Opening market - The resumption of financial market after the close of the session, and after weekends and public holidays.

Pending order - Directive initiated by the client to the broker to open the position only if the course in advance a certain level.
P
Confirmation - Fully completed transaction, accompanied by appropriate document containing the description of the transaction.

Purchase - The opening of a long or closing a short position.

The datafeed - The sequence coming to the trading platform quotes on each currency pair traded on the currency market.

Streaming quotes - The quotations of the dealer for each financial instrument in the mode real time coming to the trading terminal without request.

Offer - The price at which you have the option to buy the tool in the given time.

Profit - The income received from deal.

Item - The minimum possible change tool.
Example: Suppose that at some-if the price of the instrument amounted to 2,050 and in what-the moment it has increased to 2,060. This means that the instrument rate increased by 10 points.
P
The gap - The course interval, inside of which there was no quotations.

Resident - A legal or natural person having permanent residency in the country, which subject to the national legislation of the country in full volume.

Market - A set organized on a competitive basis economic relations based on regular exchange transactions between owners goods, rights of goods, financial assets and consumers.

Market order - The Directive initiated by the client to the broker or dealer stock or commodity the exchange, on the sale or purchase of certain of the exchange assets immediately at the prevailing market price.
With
SWIFT - Global computer network by which the transfer of payment instructions and payment messages.

Swap or Storage - The amount that is credited or debited as payment for the transfer position. Swap Forex the next day is positive or negative swaps, depending on interest rate differentials. For moving a spot position in the night from Wednesday to Thursday the storage is charged or is charged in triple size. Because Friday always remains value date of the position, which was opened on Wednesday. Thus, when a position through the night from Wednesday to Thursday, the value date shall increase for three days. So automatically it will be moved to Monday. Therefore, the storage and counts as three day and not one.

The deal - The operation of buying or selling tool.

Spread (Spread) - The difference between the purchase price (ask) and sale price (bid) currency pairs in one and the same time what-either the asset. Its size is a measure of market liquidity. The higher its value is, consequently, less liquidity. Liquid currency pair like tend to have small values of the spread.

Demand - Willingness to buy currency at the offered price. The lower price offer, the higher the demand.

Stop-loss - The Directive initiated by the client to the broker, exposed in the terminal to close open position to limit its losses at the time the price reaches a predetermined level.
T
Teak - The minimum change in the price of the financial instrument or the level of order.

Ticket – A unique number identifier operations assigned to the server.

Ticker – A unique number the ID of the operations assigned to the opened position or pending order.

Trade in day - Bid, fully complete one the current work day without having to transfer open positions to another worker day.

Trader - Member of stock exchange transactions, perform operations on the purchase or sale of exchange of assets for customers.

Trading account – Personal register stock trading and non-trading operations and orders belonging to the client.

The transaction – Opening a buy position or sell tool to a certain extent, followed by the opposite operation of closing the position the same instrument and with the same volume.
At
Margin level (Margin Level) – The percentage value of available funds client to bail.

The order level (Order Level) – The price of a financial the tool you specified when creating the order in which the client's account is opened created corresponding to the order type position.
F
The Federal reserve (The fed) - Independent financial institution that performs Central Bank functions and implements centralized control over the commercial the banking system of the United States of America.
X
Hedging - The process of opening trades in one market to compensate exposure to price risk of equal but opposite position in another market. Is done the purpose of insurance of risks of price changes by entering into transactions on the derivatives markets.
Centner
Price (Price) – The quote of the financial instrument.
H
Partial closure (Split Close) – Close a position in full.
E
The Issuer - Organization or the authority having the right cash or non-cash the issue, which issued securities for the purpose of promotion, development, and further the implementation of its activities.
Yu
Legal entity – the organization that has ownership, economic management or operational management of separate property and is liable for its obligations this property, may on its behalf acquire and exercise property and personal nonproperty rights, bear duties, be a plaintiff and defendant in court.
I
An obvious mistake (Explicit Error) – The difference between the price of opening and / or closing which is significantly different from the market quotes at this time.